Category: abdominal aortic aneurysm

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary Embolism :

A clot that forms in one part of the body and travels in the bloodstream to another part of the body is called an embolus. A pulmonary embolism is a blockage in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs.


Blood clots can form for a variety of reasons. Pulmonary embolisms are most often caused by Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), a condition in which blood clots form in veins deep in the body. The blood clots that most often cause pulmonary embolisms typically begin in the legs or arms.

Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Embolism:

Pulmonary embolism symptoms can vary greatly, depending on how much of your lung is involved, the size of the clots and your overall health — especially the presence or absence of underlying lung disease or heart disease.

  • Cough
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath

Other Signs and Symptoms Include:

  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating
  • Clammy or discolored skin
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Leg pain or swelling, or both, usually in the calf

Risk Factors Include:

Pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening, but prompt treatment can greatly reduce the risk of death. Taking measures to prevent blood clots in your legs will help protect you against pulmonary embolism.

  • Cancer, Obesity
  • Major surgery
  • A sedentary lifestyle
  • Fractures of the leg or hip
  • A family history of embolisms
  • A history of heart attack or stroke

Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism:

Diagnosing pulmonary embolism is difficult, because there are many other medical conditions, depends on an accurate and thorough medical history and ruling out other conditions. Your doctor will need to know about your symptoms and risk factors for pulmonary embolism. This information, combined with a careful physical exam, will point to the initial tests that are best suited to diagnose a deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

Tests that are often done if you have shortness of breath or chest pain include:

  • A chest X-ray, Arterial blood gas analysis, Electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG)

Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism:

Patients with pulmonary embolism are treated with clot-dissolving and clot-preventing drugs. Oxygen therapy is often needed to maintain normal oxygen concentrations. For people who can’t take anticoagulants and in some other cases, surgery may be needed to insert a device that filters blood returning to the heart and lungs. The goal of treatment is to maintain the patient’s cardiovascular and respiratory functions while the blockage resolves, which takes 10-14 days, and to prevent the formation of other emboli.

Thrombolytic therapy to dissolve blood clots is the aggressive treatment for very severe pulmonary embolism. Streptokinase, urokinase, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) are thrombolytic agents. Heparin is the injectable anticoagulant (clotpreventing) drug of choice for preventing formation of blood clots. Warfarin, an oral anticoagulant, is usually continued when the patient leaves the hospital and doesn’t need heparin any longer.

Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism:

People having major surgery should be assessed for their DVT risk, and people at high risk of DVT may need preventative (prophylactic) doses of heparin or a similar medicine before and after surgery. Other preventative measures are also possible while in hospital. Pulmonary embolism risk can be reduced in certain patients through judicious use of anti-thrombotic drugs such as heparin, venous interruption, gradient elastic stockings and/or intermittent pneumatic compression of the legs.

Pulmonary Embolism can be life-threatening. It’s important to get immediate medical treatment for it. Seek counsel from our Houston Cardiologist if you suspect you are suffering from Pulmonary Embolism for the best treatment options for you. Call on +1 281-866-7701. Advanced Cardiovascular Care Center…!


Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease in which the heart muscle (myocardium) becomes abnormally thick (hypertrophied). The thickened heart muscle can make it harder for the heart to pump blood. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is very common and can affect people of any age. About one out of every 500 people has HCM. It affects men and women equally.

Other Names for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

  • Asymmetric Septal Hypertrophy
  • Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy
  • Hypertrophic Non-obstructive Cardiomyopathy
  • Idiopathic Hypertrophic Sub-aortic Stenosis (IHSS)

Causes of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy:

HCM is a genetic condition caused by a change or mutation in one or more genes and is passed on through families. Each child of someone with HCM has a 50 per cent chance of inheriting the condition. HCM is a common cause of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in young people, including young athletes.

HCM also can affect the heart’s mitral valve, causing blood to leak backward through the valve. Sometimes, the thickened heart muscle doesn’t block blood flow out of the left ventricle. This is called non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The entire ventricle may thicken, or the thickening may happen only at the bottom of the heart. The right ventricle also may be affected.

Symptoms of HCM:

Many people with HCM don’t experience any symptoms. However, the following symptoms may occur during physical activity:

You may find that you never have any serious problems related to your condition, and with treatment, your symptoms should be controlled. However some people may find that their symptoms worsen or become harder to control in later life.

The area of heart muscle that is affected by HCM and the amount of stiffening that occurs will determine how the symptoms affect you.

For some people, a number of other conditions can develop as a result of having HCM. These may include abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, including heart block and endocarditis.

Other symptoms that might occur, at any time, include:

  • Chest pain
  • Palpitations
  • Shortness of breath
  • High blood pressure
  • Light headedness and fainting


Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy:

The health care provider will perform a physical exam and listen to the heart and lungs with a stethoscope. Signs may include abnormal heart sounds or a heart murmur. These sounds may change with different body positions, High blood pressure, the pulse in your arms and neck will also be checked. The doctor may feel an abnormal heartbeat in the chest.

Close family members of people who have been diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be screened for the condition. Tests used to diagnose heart muscle thickness, problems with blood flow, or leaky heart valves (mitral valve regurgitation) may include:

  • Echocardiography, ECG
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • MRI of the heart, Chest X-ray
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
  • 24-hour Holter monitor (heart rhythm monitor)

Risk Factors include:

Any strenuous exercise that increases after load (i.e., heavy weight lifting/training) can theoretically increase the magnitude of LV hypertrophy over time and thus worsen obstruction in subjects with pre-existing HCM. Risk factors for the development of end-stage HCM (manifesting as LV systolic dysfunction and LV dilation) include younger age of onset/presentation of HCM, a family history of HCM, increased ventricular wall thickness, along with the presence of certain genetic mutations in certain individuals.

Treatment of HCM:

At present there is no cure for HCM, but treatments are available to help control your symptoms and prevent complications. Your treatment will depend on how your heart is affected and what symptoms you have. You may need:

  • A Pacemaker – to control your heart rate
  • Medicines – to help control your blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms
  • An ICD – if you are at risk of having a life threatening abnormal heart rhythm

Seek counsel from our Houston Cardiologist if you suspect you are suffering from Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) for the best treatment options for you.

Visit us at:|Call: +1 281-866-7701.

Cardiac MRI & Coronary CTA

Cardiac MRI & Coronary CTA – Advanced Cardiovascular Care Center

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe, noninvasive test provides detailed pictures of organs and tissues. MRI uses radio waves, magnets, and a computer to create pictures of your organs and tissues. MRI doesn’t use ionizing radiation or carry any risk of causing cancer.

 Cardiac MRI Scan report provides both structure and moving pictures of the heart and major blood vessels. Doctors use cardiac MRI to get images of the beating heart and to look at its structure and function. These pictures can help them decide the best way to treat patients who have heart problems.

 Cardiac MRI is a common test. It’s used to diagnose and assess many diseases and conditions, including:

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Damage caused by a heart attack
  • Heart failure
  • Heart valve problems
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Cardiac tumors

 Cardiac MRI can help explain results from other tests, such as X-rays and computed tomography scans also called CT scans. Doctors sometimes use cardiac MRI instead of invasive procedures or tests that involve radiation or dyes containing iodine.

 A contrast agent, such as gadolinium, might be injected into a vein during cardiac MRI. The substance travels to the heart and highlights the heart and blood vessels on the MRI pictures. This contrast agent often is used for people who are allergic to the dyes used in CT scanning. People who have severe kidney or liver problems may not be able to have the contrast agent. As a result, they may have a non-contrast MRI.

 Cardiac MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) allows cardiologists to see the heart in more detail than any other imaging format available. It is a non-invasive treatment that can more accurately identify in need of coronary angiography, coronary stenting or bypass operations. A cardiac MRI is a non-invasive test that uses radio waves to take images of the heart. Doctors use the test to evaluate the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiac MRI test usually takes 45-90 minutes and it doesn’t hurt.

Coronary CTA is used as a noninvasive method for detecting blockages in the coronary arteries. A CTA can be performed much faster (in less than one minute) than a cardiac catheterization, with potentially less risk and discomfort as well as decreased recovery time.

 A coronary computed tomography angiogram (CCTA) uses advanced CT technology, along with intravenous (IV) contrast material (dye), to obtain high-resolution, 3D pictures of the moving heart and great vessels.

 Coronary CTA is also called multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT), cardiac CT or cardiac CAT. During CTA, X-rays pass through the body and are picked up by detectors in the scanner that produce 3D images on a computer screen. These images enable physicians to determine whether plaque or calcium deposits are present in the artery walls.

 Coronary CTA (CCTA) allows direct visualization of the coronary artery wall and lumen with the administration of intravenous contrast. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiogram (CTA) technology results in structure of the functioning of heart.  Coronary CTA test can provide important insights to their primary physician into the extent and nature of plaque formation with or without any narrowing of the coronary arteries.

 Who should have a Coronary CTA Test?

Intermediate to high-risk profiles for coronary artery disease, but who do not have typical symptoms especially chest pain, shortness of breath, or fatigue during heavy physical activity.

  • Unusual symptoms for coronary artery disease, but low to intermediate risk profiles for coronary artery disease
  • Unclear or conclusive stress-test (treadmill test) results

 Get tested by Cardiac MRI/Coronary CTA scans to identify the imaging of the complete cardiovascular system.

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Coronary Angiogram Services in Houston

Coronary Angiogram :-

A coronary angiogram is a system in which X-beam imaging looks inside your heart’s blood vessels. Coronary angiograms are one of a few methods known as Cardiac Catheterization. Catheterization characterizes any strategy where a long, thin, Flexible Plastic Tube (catheter) is embedded into one’s body. Heart Catheter techniques can help with diagnosing and treating heart and blood vessel conditions. A coronary angiogram which may analyze heart conditions—is the most widely recognized sort of heart catheter methodology.

Coronary Angiogram

Coronary angiograms are prescribed by a specialist if an individual if encountering any of the accompanying side effects:

  • Heart disappointment
  • New or expanding mid-section pain
  • A heart valve issue that requires surgery
  • Other blood vessel issues or a mid-section damage
  • Symptoms of coronary vein disease, for example, mid-section pain
  • Pain in the mid-section, jaw, neck or arm that can’t be clarified by different tests
  • Congenital Heart Disease or a heart abandon that has been with the person since conception

A specialist might likewise prescribe an angiogram if the individual is having surgery disconnected to the heart, yet may be at high danger of showing at least a bit of kindness issue amid the surgery. There are dangers connected with angiograms. In this manner, it is normally done after non-invasive heart tests have been performed, for example, an electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram or a stress test.

An angiogram can show specialists what’s the issue with in the blood vessels. It can:

  • Show what number of coronary arteries is obstructed by Fatty Plaques
  • Pinpoint where blockages are situated in blood vessels
  • Show the amount of blood stream is obstructed through blood vessels
  • Check the consequences of a past coronary bypass surgery
  • Check the blood move through the heart and blood vessels

In view of the outcomes, one’s specialist can figure out what treatment is best for the patient and how much peril the heart condition postures to one’s wellbeing. After effects of the angiogram ought to be accessible that day the procedure is performed.

If you feel you would benefit from a coronary angiogram, talk to Cardiology Doctor in Houston to determine the best course of action.

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is an enlarged area in the lower part of the aorta, the major blood vessel that supplies blood to the body. The aorta, about the thickness of a garden hose, runs from your heart through the center of your chest and abdomen. Because the aorta is the body’s main supplier of blood, a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause life-threatening bleeding.

Depending on the size and rate at which your abdominal aortic aneurysm is growing, treatment may vary from watchful waiting to emergency surgery. Once an abdominal aortic aneurysm is found, doctors will closely monitor it so that surgery can be planned if it’s necessary. Emergency surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can be risky.

Causes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA):

The exact cause of the condition is unknown. The leading thought is that the aneurysm may be caused by inflammation in the aorta, which may cause its wall to weaken or break down. This believes that inflammation can be associated with atherosclerosis or risk factors that contribute to atherosclerosis, such as high blood pressure (hypertension) and smoking. In atherosclerosis fatty deposits, called plaque, build up in an artery. Over time, this buildup causes the artery to narrow, stiffen and possibly weaken. Factors that can increase your risk of developing the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm include:

  • Smoking
  • Male Gender
  • Genetic Factors
  • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age 60 that have one or more risk factors. The larger the aneurysm, the more likely it is to break open. This can be life-threatening.

Symptoms of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm:

Aneurysms can develop slowly over many years, often with no symptoms. Symptoms may come on quickly if the aneurysm expands rapidly, tears open or leaks blood within the wall of the vessel (aortic dissection).

Symptoms of rupture include:

Pain in the abdomen or back, pain may be severe, sudden, persistent, or constant. It may spread to the groin, buttocks, or legs.

  • Shock
  • Dizziness
  • Passing out
  • Clammy Skin
  • Rapid Heart Rate
  • Nausea And Vomiting

Diagnosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm:

Doctor will examine your abdomen and feel the pulses in your legs. The doctor may find:

  • Stiff or rigid abdomen
  • A lump (mass) in the abdomen
  • Pulsating sensation in the abdomen

You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms. Your doctor may find this problem by doing the following tests:

  • Ultrasound of the abdomen when the abdominal aneurysm is first suspected
  • CT scan of the abdomen to confirm the size of the aneurysm
  • CTA (Computed Tomography Angiogram) to help with surgical planning

Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm:

If you have bleeding inside your body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. If the aneurysm is small and there are no symptoms. Surgery is rarely done. Most of the time, surgery is done if the aneurysm is bigger than 2 inches (5.5 cm) across or growing quickly. The goal is to do surgery before complications develop. There are two types of surgeries:

Traditional (open) Repair: A large cut is made in your abdomen. The abnormal vessel is replaced with a graft made of man-made material.

Endovascular Stent Grafting: This procedure can be done without making a large cut in your abdomen, so you may recover more quickly. This may be a safer approach if you have certain other medical problems. Endovascular repair can sometimes be done for a leaking or bleeding aneurysm.

Prevention of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm:

  • People over age 65 who have ever smoked should have a screening ultrasound done once.
  • If you have high blood pressure or diabetes, take your medicines as your doctor has told you.
  • To reduce the risk of aneurysms, eat a heart-healthy diet, exercise, stop smoking (if you smoke), and reduce stress.

Seek counsel from our Houston Cardiologist if you suspect you are suffering from Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm for the best treatment options for you.

To Schedule an Appointment Visit us at:|Call: +1 281-866-7701

Atherosclerosis – Advanced Cardio Vascular Care Centre

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body.

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque develops inside your arteries. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and different substances found in the blood. Ultimately, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This restricts the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and different parts of your body.

Types of Atherosclerosis:

Atherosclerosis happens when fat, cholesterol, and calcium harden in your arteries. Atherosclerosis can happen in an artery anywhere in your body, including your heart, legs, and kidneys. Disease types include:

  • Kidney disease
  • Carotid artery disease
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Peripheral artery disease

Symptoms of Atherosclerosis:

Atherosclerosis develops gradually. Mild atherosclerosis typically doesn’t have any symptoms. Atherosclerosis symptoms observed when an artery is stops sufficient blood to your organs and tissues. In some cases a blood clot totally blocks blood flow, or even breaks separated and can trigger a heart attack or stroke. Symptoms of moderate to extreme atherosclerosis rely on upon which arteries are influenced.

Causes for Atherosclerosis:

The reasons for atherosclerosis are complicated and still not totally caught on. Atherosclerosis is thought to begin when the internal lining of the artery gets to be harmed. The blood vessel wall responds to this injury by storing greasy substances, cholesterol, calcium and different substances on the internal lining of the artery. This plaque development progressively limits the blood vessels, making it harder for blood to flow. Plaque can also break separated and cause a blood clot to frame on the broken surface or travel through the bloodstream, and prevent smooth blood flow to close-by organs. The resulting blood clot can also go to different parts of your body and blocks blood flow to different organs.

Risk Factors Include:

Factors incorporate tobacco use, large amounts of cholesterol in the blood, hypertension, diabetes, corpulence, physical inactivity, and diet. Dietary factors include low daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and other than moderate alcohol consumption. Risk factors that can’t be altered incorporate having a family history of right on time atherosclerosis.

Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis:

A stress test monitors your heart rate and blood weight while you stroll on a treadmill or ride a stationary bike. An electrocardiogram (ECG) is utilized amid a stress test to distinguish anomalous heart rhythms, scar tissue in the heart muscle from a former heart assault, and ranges of diminished blood flow to the heart. Imaging strategies utilized amid a stress test, can pinpoint zones where blood flow to the heart might be decreased. An angiogram, where your specialist injects a dye into your arteries and afterward performs a chest x-beam, can uncover territories of harm and plaque development.

Treatment of Atherosclerosis:

Treatment includes changing your present way of life to one that confines the measure of fat and cholesterol you expend. Sometimes, surgery might be fundamental if symptoms are particularly serious, or if muscle or skin tissue are imperiled. Possible surgeries for treating atherosclerosis include:

  • Angioplasty
  • Atherectomy
  • Bypass surgery
  • Endarterectomy
  • Thrombolytic treatment

Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death. Seek counsel from our Heart Doctors in Houston if you suspect you are suffering from Atherosclerosis for the best treatment alternatives for you.

Causes, Symptoms and Types of Pulmonary Stenosis – Heart Clinic in Houston

Pulmonary stenosis is narrowing of the valve between the right ventricle or lower chamber, of the heart on its way to the lungs (pulmonary artery) or both. As pulmonary stenosis becomes more severe, the thickness of the right ventricle increases and produces right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Stenosis is a congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

Types of Pulmonary Stenosis:

  • Valvar Pulmonary Stenosis: The valve leaflets are thickened and/or narrowed
  • Supravalvar Pulmonary Stenosis: The portion of the pulmonary artery just above the pulmonary valve is narrowed
  • Subvalvar (Infundibular) Pulmonary Stenosis: The muscle under the valve area is thickened, narrowing the outflow tract from the right ventricle
  • Branch Peripheral Pulmonic Stenosis: The right or left pulmonary artery is narrowed, or both may be narrowed


Physicians do not know the exact cause of pulmonary valve stenosis. The valve in the fetus may fail to develop properly during pregnancy. The disease also may have a genetic component. The condition also may accompany additional congenital heart defects. Your physician will often recommend performing additional tests to ensure your heart is healthy. Adults also can experience the condition due to a complication from an illness that affects the heart. These include rheumatic fever or carcinoid tumors in the digestive system.

Signs and Symptoms:

Pulmonary valve stenosis signs and symptoms vary, depending on the extent of the obstruction. People with mild pulmonary stenosis usually don’t have symptoms. Those with more significant stenosis often first notice symptoms while exercising. Pulmonary valve stenosis signs and symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Heart murmur
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of consciousness (fainting)
  • Shortness of breath, especially during exertion

Testing and Diagnosis:

In rare cases, newborns have life-threatening pulmonary stenosis, which requires immediate medical attention. Diagnosis of pulmonary stenosis may require some or all of these tests:

  • Chest X-ray
  • Cardiac MRI
  • Pulse oximetry
  • Echocardiogram
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)


Sometimes, treatment may not be needed if the disorder is mild. When there are also other heart defects, medicines may be used to help blood flow through the heart (prostaglandins), to help the heart beat stronger, to Prevent clots and to remove excess fluid. Prognosis without treatment is generally good and improves with appropriate intervention.

Treatment is balloon valvuloplasty, indicated for symptomatic patients and asymptomatic patients with normal systolic function and a peak gradient > 40 to 50 mm Hg. Percutaneous valve replacement may be offered at highly selected congenital heart centers, especially for younger patients or those with multiple previous procedures, in order to reduce the number of open heart procedures.

If you have pulmonary stenosis or another heart problem, prompt evaluation and treatment can help reduce risk of complications. Seek counsel from our renowned Top Cardiologists in Houston for the best treatment of Pulmonary Stenosis.

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