Pulmonary stenosis is narrowing of the valve between the right ventricle or lower chamber, of the heart on its way to the lungs (pulmonary artery) or both. As pulmonary stenosis becomes more severe, the thickness of the right ventricle increases and produces right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Stenosis is a congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.
Types of Pulmonary Stenosis:
- Valvar Pulmonary Stenosis: The valve leaflets are thickened and/or narrowed
- Supravalvar Pulmonary Stenosis: The portion of the pulmonary artery just above the pulmonary valve is narrowed.
- Subvalvar (Infundibular) Pulmonary Stenosis: The muscle under the valve area is thickened, narrowing the outflow tract from the right ventricle.
- Branch Peripheral Pulmonic Stenosis: The right or left pulmonary artery is narrowed, or both may be narrowed
Physicians do not know the exact cause of pulmonary valve stenosis. The valve in the fetus may fail to develop properly during pregnancy. The disease also may have a genetic component. The condition also may accompany additional congenital heart defects. Your physician will often recommend performing additional tests to ensure your heart is healthy. Adults also can experience the condition due to a complication from an illness that affects the heart. These include rheumatic fever or carcinoid tumors in the digestive system.
Signs and Symptoms:
Pulmonary valve stenosis signs and symptoms vary, depending on the extent of the obstruction. People with mild pulmonary stenosis usually don’t have symptoms. Those with more significant stenosis often first notice symptoms while exercising. Pulmonary valve stenosis signs and symptoms may include:
- Chest pain
- Heart murmur
- Shortness of breath
- Loss of consciousness (fainting)
- Shortness of breath, especially during exertion
Testing and Diagnosis:
In rare cases, newborns have life-threatening pulmonary stenosis, which requires immediate medical attention. Diagnosis of pulmonary stenosis may require some or all of these tests:
- Chest X-ray
- Cardiac MRI
- Pulse oximetry
- Cardiac catheterization
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Sometimes, treatment may not be needed if the disorder is mild. When there are also other heart defects, medicines may be used to help blood flow through the heart (prostaglandins), to help the heart beat stronger, to Prevent clots and to remove excess fluid. Prognosis without treatment is generally good and improves with appropriate intervention.
Treatment is balloon valvuloplasty, indicated for symptomatic patients and asymptomatic patients with normal systolic function and a peak gradient > 40 to 50 mm Hg. Percutaneous valve replacement may be offered at highly selected congenital heart centers, especially for younger patients or those with multiple previous procedures, in order to reduce the number of open heart procedures.
When surgical replacement is necessary, bioprosthetic valves are preferred due to the high rates of thrombosis of right-sided mechanical heart valves. This procedure is done through an artery in the groin. The doctor sends a flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon attached to the end up to the heart. Special X-rays are used to help guide the catheter. The balloon stretches the opening of the valve.
If you have pulmonary stenosis or another heart problem, prompt evaluation and treatment can help reduce risk of complications. Seek counsel from our renowned Best Cardiologists in Houston for the best treatment of Pulmonary Stenosis.
Schedule an Appointment: http://www.Advancedcardiodr.com |Call on: +1 281-866-7701.